Computer Buses – Architecture, Types and Arbitration

Computer Buses

Computers are made with different internal components which require to connect with each other for processing. The connection between these components to share data is with the help of wire which is known as a bus or Internal buses.

Communication is not done internally but also externally where data from one computer is transferred to another computer which is connected to each other. It is known as computer Bus or external buses where different computers are connected with each other to share peripheral devices or data.

Construction or Architecture

Different components in computer is connected with CPU through wires for transmitting data and signals. The components are usually connected in parallel or serial form to transmit data or control signal. The classification of buses is dependent on the basis of data that can be transferred at once.

The CPU in the computer is used to perform arithmetic or logical function while the memory is used to store data. Input /output unit uses a computer keyboard, screen along with the hard drive to write or read data. This all components of the computer are required to communicate with each other.

If there is a single bus it can increase wait time as everyone has to wait till one component complete its work. So, there are multiple buses used in computer which will make communication easy and all components can work efficiently and on time.

Data Bus

The name itself specifies that it is used to carry data from one component to another component in a computer. When data transmission is between CPU and memory it is bidirectional else for input/output devices it is unidirectional.

Control Bus

It is also known as command bus which transmits control signals. CPU consist of a control unit which this unidirectional bus to control other components of the computer.

Address Bus

This unidirectional bus is used to carry memory addresses which are required by the processor to carry out read and write data. It will help to know about the memory location of different components in the computer.

Type of Computer Buses

Front Bus:  This Bus is mainly to connect CPU, RAM and memory with each other through channels that can transfer 8, 16 or 32 bits.

Internal Bus: It is the connection between the internal components of a computer.

External Bus: Connecting computers to peripheral devices like scanners or printers.

Expansion Bus: It is used to connect motherboard components with new devices like USB, hard drive for communication.

What is the Computer Bus Arbitration?

There are chances when one module needs to control the bus and at the same time, other components also request for the bus. Only a single component is able to send data through the bus at a time and so it might create confusion. So, there is a need for arbitration which can help to control such an issue.

Static arbitration: It uses a predetermined way of how bus will be used by the different component. It will be like each and every master is given access to the bus in order to communicate. It is not efficient as if a component does not require any operation still it will have access to the bus.

Dynamic bus Arbitration: Components which request for some operation will only be allotted bus. There are two lines for each master which is request and grant to show if the bus is granted to them or not.

The Bottom Line

In all computer, a bus is very important as communication is an important aspect for the efficient working of a computer. Internal components of the computer need to communicate with each other and it is possible through such technology. Compute rebus is the only way to interconnect different component. Now you know the importance of computer bus. Think, what will happen if there is no such computer Bus?

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