Nobel Prizes are normally conferred in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Peace, Literature and prize in the field of Economic Sciences. The Nobel Prize was founded in 1895 in memory of Sir Alfred Nobel. As mentioned by Business Standard, Nobel Prize is a prestigious prize awarded separately in six different fields “to those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind”. Initially the prize was awarded in the fields of Medicine or Physiology, Physics, Chemistry, Literature, and Peace. Later in the year 1968, a prize in the field of economic sciences was added. The Prize is officially not a Nobel Prize but it is known as “The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel”. This sixth prize was established by Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden’s central bank).
About Alfred Nobel
Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish businessman, chemist, inventor, engineer, and philanthropist. Nobel was fluent in many languages, and wrote several drama and poetry. His interest in social and peace-related issues are clearly reflected in the prize he established. Nobel is best known for having bequeathed his fortune to the Nobel Prize institution, as well as for his important contributions to various fields in science.
Alfred Nobel patented the explosive nitroglycerin, as well as founded many companies, and patented gelignite and dynamite, among his other accomplishments. It was after the death of Alfred Nobel in the year 1896, when the Nobel Prize came into existence. The Nobel Prize was first awarded in the year 1901.
Nobel Prize 2021 Winners
Dmitry Muratov and Maria Ressa – Peace Prize
- The Norwegian Nobel Committee has awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 2021 to Dmitry Muratov and Maria Ressa for their endeavors to protect the opportunity of articulation, which is a precondition for a majority rule government and enduring harmony.
- Ms. Ressa and Mr. Muratov are getting the Peace Prize for their gutsy battle for the opportunity of articulation in the Philippines and Russia.
- Maria Ressa utilizes the opportunity of articulation to uncover maltreatment of force, utilization of brutality, and developing tyranny in her local country, the Philippines. In 2012, she helped to establish Rappler, an advanced media organization for insightful reporting, which she heads.
- Dmitry Andreyevich Muratov has for quite a long time protected the right to speak freely in Russia under progressively testing conditions. In the year 1993, he was one of the organizers of the autonomous paper Novaja Gazeta. Since 1995 he has been the paper’s editorial manager in-boss for about 24 years. Novaja Gazeta is till date the most autonomous paper in Russia, with a generally basic demeanor towards power.
David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian – Physiology or Medicine
- The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded together to David Julius and Ardem Patpoutian “for their revelations of receptors for temperature and contact”.
- Their revelations have opened one of nature’s secrets by clarifying the atomic reason for detecting hotness, cold, and mechanical power, for our capacity to feel, decipher and cooperate with our interior and outer conditions is unique.
Guido Imbens, David Card and Joshua Angrist – Economic Sciences
The Prize in Economic Sciences is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, as per the same principles as for the Nobel Prizes since 1901.
- Three US-based economists won the Nobel prize 2021 for economic Sciences for pioneering research on the labour market impacts of minimum wage, immigration and education, and for creating the scientific framework for allowing conclusions to be drawn from such studies that can’t use traditional methodology.
- David Card of the University of California at Berkeley was awarded one half of the prize, while the other half was shared by Dutch-born Guido Imbens from Stanford University and Joshua Angrist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
David Macmillan and Benjamin List – Chemistry
- The 2021 Nobel Prize in Chemistry are conferred to Benjamin List and David W.C. Macmillan “For the advancement of unbalanced Organocatalytic.”
- Benjamin List is a German chemist and one of the directors of the Max Planck Institute for Coal Research.
- He is also a professor of organic chemistry at the University of Cologne.
- David William Cross MacMillan FRS FRSE is a Scottish chemist. He is also the James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Chemistry at Princeton University.
- David William Cross MacMillan is chairs the Department of Chemistry at Princeton University from 2010 to 2015.
Abdulrazak Gurnah – Literature
- Nobel Prize in Literature 2021 has been conferred to Tanzanian novelist Abdulrazak Gurnah.
- He has been honoured with the Prize for his uncompromising and compassionate penetration of ‘effects of colonialism’ and fate of refugees in the gulf between cultures & continents.
- Gurnah’s work revolves around the theme of the disruption of refugees.
- Swahili was his first language, but he made English as his literary tool.
Giorgio Parisi, Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann – Physics
- Nobel Prize 2021 in Physics has been awarded to Giorgio Paris, Syukuro Manebe and Klaus Hasselmann “for their extraordinary commitments to our comprehension of complicated actual frameworks”.
- Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hassel Mann have been mutually granted a one half of the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics “for actual demonstrating of Earth’s environment, measuring changeability, and dependably anticipating a dangerous atmospheric deviation”.
- Giorgio Parisi has been granted one half of the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics “for his revelation of the connection of confusion and changes in actual frameworks from nuclear to planetary scales.”
A total of 186 Nobel Prizes has been conferred multiple times since commencement. As indicated by records, from 1901 to 2020, the Nobel Prize has been granted several times. Nobel Prize 2021 is an important topic for UPSC.