Different Types of Programming Languages

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Not all languages offer the same possibilities; some are easier to transfer on another platform (Linux, Solaris, and Mac etc.) than the others, some are easier to handle, some are better devices, etc. Let us know about the types of programming languages.

Program is an important part of programming that you must know. A program is a set of instructions in a particular language so that the computer can understand and execute them.

Most programming languages share some common basics. The most obvious is that the instructions are in English or inspired by English. All languages allow to manipulate different types of variables (which can contain various forms of numbers, characters, text etc.) The instructions are read and executed one after the other but there are branch instructions that allow to “jump” to a given position and thus to make loops (blocks of instructions that repeat under certain conditions), functions (sort of subroutine that returns a result from one or more variables).

The Assembler (ASM)

Invented in 1945 by John von Neumann, the assembler was the first true programming language but also the closest to the machine language (it is addressed directly to the processor) and therefore, one of the most complicated. The instructions are of type MOV, ADD, PUSH, POP, INT, in short rarely more than 5 letters, which makes them difficult to memorize.

It is also necessary to understand the operation of the battery and the different registers of the processor (guaranteed taking of head). There are no ready-made instructions: you must first put the right data in the correct registers before calling the appropriate interrupts.

COBOL

Common Organization Business Oriented Language. Dating back to 1959, this programming language was developed at the request of the US government but is no longer widely used. Indeed, unlike C++ or Java, it is not object oriented. In addition, it included some quirks like the ability to edit the source code during execution. Finally, the biggest handicap of COBOL is that it is badly standardized: there are many standards, many compilers (often owners and paying, which brings nothing to the popularity of the language).

BASIC

Beginners All Purpose Simple Instructions Code (1964). Without doubt the simplest programming language in the world; it makes it possible to create basic programs (si!) very easily and thus constitutes a challenged but painless introduction to programming, especially since it is the only use that could still be found. Indeed, BASIC is far from being a “powerful” language.

A Word on Object-oriented Programming (OOP)

Here, it is not a language but a paradigm (a way of seeing things what). Object-oriented programming is about representing one’s program in the form of objects (it can be anything) with their own attributes and communicating with each other using methods.

Object-oriented programming is becoming more and more essential nowadays to make programs flexible, well designed and maintainable. It is accompanied by various notions that we quote you in bulk: inheritance, polymorphism, upcast, class/abstract method, design patterns, etc.

Java

Originating in the early 90’s, officially born in 1995, this language has the advantage of being portable; we can run a JAVA program on Windows, Mac, Linux, everything. This portability is due to a particularity of the most widespread implementation (understand: of Sun) of the JAVA language: it is not compiled in machine code like other languages but in an intermediate language called “ByteCode”.

Then you need what is called a “JAVA virtual machine” (JVM or J2RE for connoisseurs) to run it. Only this virtual machine changes according to the systems. Once installed on the machine, all JAVA programs can be run there.

C and C ++

Created in 1972 by Kernigan and Ritchie, C is the language of choice for programming operating systems. Its nice syntax has inspired many programming languages (C ++, Java, PHP, etc.). It is not object oriented and its type management sometimes allows some aberration, but it remains a reliable language, powerful and maintainable.

C ++ is kind of an improved C. This language that allows a lot of things is considered the heavy artillery of programming. It combines the performance of the C with the paradigm of object programming, without imposing it so far. It has a lot of features including some that are only there to be really complete (example: private inheritance). In return, he suffers from a certain complexity.

The biggest advantage of these two languages is undoubtedly the extraordinary amount of libraries available to them.

Pascal

This language, whose name comes from the mathematician Blaise Pascal (you know, the triangle of the same name) was born in the 70s. It grew from 1983 with the turbo compiler Pascal (from Borland); he evolved to incorporate objects and then to be able to display windows.

The Visual Basic

Derived from the BASIC language, you can preview Visual Basic if you have MS Excel (open it and do Alt + F11); this programming language makes it possible to make small Windows programs.

The Languages of The Web

The languages seen previously are usually used to create local programs to run on your machine. But what is used for pages and web applications.

HTML

HTML (Hyper-Text Markup Language) is simply the language in which web pages are written; thus, you can create your own web pages just with the notepad (notepad.exe) or any other text editor. All you need to do is enter the instructions as if it were text and save the resulting text as .htm or .html.

Relatively simple, this language is based on a system of tags, such as <head>. But no need to know them to make a basic page. Indeed, there are many editors of web pages that allow you to create web pages as you create a document in Word (Mozilla, Macromedia Dreamweaver, etc.). Be aware, however, that the code generated by these editors is not the cleanest.

CSS

The CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) is used to lighten the HTML code. For that, one generally creates a file * .css in which one enters all the instructions coding the style of the web page (color of background, type of blocks, borders, etc.). By using this file in the HTML page, you can designate a heavy and complex style with a simple small tag. In addition, if CSS is used in an entire site (as it always is), just update the CSS to redesign the whole site.

JavaScript

Still for the net, JavaScript is rather simple and does not need to be compiled. We insert the code in the web page and the browser interprets it alone as a big one. The main difficulties are the knowledge of different objects and events of a web page while remaining compatible with different browsers.

PHP

PHP (PHP: Hyper-text Preprocessor) is a server-side and not a client-side language like JavaScript. For this, we place on the remote server (with PHP) web pages with the extension *.php. These pages generally contain PHP code capable of generating a classic HTML page according to the parameters sent by the user and contained in an additional database. These instructions are therefore executed on the remote server, which generates an HTML page which is then sent to the user (client side).

SQL

SQL (Structured Query Language) is a very popular database query language. It is now a standard implemented by many DBMSs (Database Management Systems), including: database servers. These include Oracle, PostgreSQL and MySQL.

MySQL is often used to store the vital information of a website (example: the settings of registered members). It is almost inseparable from PHP. The combination of the two makes it possible to create sites called “dynamic”.

Summary:

All of these languages have different kinds of applications and provide different outputs. Some are outdated while others are yet to be explored. What do you think which language should also be included here?

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