The history of India has witnessed large number of wars. India has been ruled by various rulers and kingdoms before the arrival of British. The victory of each throne was followed by battles, which are considered as significant part of the history of the nation.
1. Battle of Hydaspes
The Battle of the Hydaspes was fought between Alexander the Great and King Porus of the Paurava kingdom in 326 BC on the banks of the river Hydaspes.
2. Battle of Kalinga:
The Battle of Kalinga was fought between the Maurya Empire with Ashoka and the state of Kalinga in 261 BC. Ashoka the Great ended the Kalinga rule and after the war he embraced Buddhism.
3. First Battle of Tarain:
The first battle of Tarain or Taraori was fough between Prithvi Raj Chauhan and Mohammed Ghori in 1191. In this battle Prithvi Raj Chauhan emerged as a winner.
4. Second Battle of Tarain:
The second battle of Tarain was fought between Mohammed Ghori and Prithvi Raj Chauhan in 1192. Mohammed Ghori emerged as winner in this battle and laid the foundation for the Muslim rule in India.
5. First Battle of Panipat:
The First Battle of Panipat was fought between Babur of Mughal Dynasty and Ibrahim Lodhi of Lodi Empire on 21 April 1526This battle marked the beginning of the Mughal Dynasty in India. This battle involved field artillery and gunpowder firearms in India.
6. Battle of Khanwah:
The Battle of Khanwa was fought between Babur and Rana Sanga of Mewar on March 17, 1527 near the village of Khanwa, near Agra. Babur ended the confederacy of Rajput in India.
7. Second Battle of Panipat:
On November 5, 1556, the Second Battle of Panipat was fought between the forces of the Hindu general Hemu and Chief Minister of Adil Shah Suri, and the forces of the Mughal emperor, Akbar. Because Akbar was a child, the battle was fought by his general Bairam Khan, and brought victory to Mughal emperor.
8. Battle of Haldighati:
The Battle of Haldighati was fought between Rana of Mewar, Maharana Pratap and forces of Mughal Emperor Akbar led by Man Singh I in June 1576 in Haldighati, Rajasthan. The battle ultimately led to the death of Rana Pratap.
9. Battle of Plassey:
The Battle of Plassey was won by British East India Company against the Siraj-ud-Daulah, Nawab of Bengal, and his French allies in June 1757.
10. Third Battle of Panipat 1761:
The Third Battle of Panipat, was the last battle at Panipat. This war took place on January 14, 1761 between the Maratha Empire forces and invading forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali, the King of Afghanistan. In this battle Marathas were defeated by Ahmed Shah Abdali.
11. Anglo–Mysore Wars 1767- 1792:
The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of four wars fought between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company on one hand; and between the Nizam of Hyderabad and Maratha Confederacy on the other.
- In the first Anglo-Mysore War, ruler of the Kingdom of Mysor, Haider Ali lost Mysore to English forces in 1767-69.
- In the second battle in 1780, Haider Ali formed an alliance with the Marathas and the Nizam and won over English forces.
- The third battle (1790-92) saw defeat of Haider Ai’s son Tipu Sultan, which led British to annex half of his territory.
- In 1799, Tipu Sultan challanged the British forces, and was defeated by troops of Arthur Wellesley.
12. Battle of Chillianwala 1849:
The Battle of Chillianwala was fought betweed army of Sher Singh and troops of British East India Company’s Lord Hugh Gough in January 1849 in the Chillianwala region of Punjab (part of modern-day Pakistan). Military of East India Company won the battle.