Judiciary in India: An Overview

Indian judiciary

“The judiciary in India administers a common law system of legal jurisdiction in which all the issues are codified under one law” – defines the Indian Judiciary

There are various levels, different courts that have varying powers.

“The role of the judiciary is to interpret the law.”

But is the above-given statement really enacted? Let’s check out on the following lines:

The Indian judiciary forms the backbone of the Indian population. But is it justifiable? It has in fact that the judiciary derives its history from the legal system established by colonial powers and the princely states and has remained since then.

A well functioning judiciary is a very powerful weapon for the common population, as well as it ensures fair judgment.

Courts – A Simplified View

Courts are the most important part of the judiciary system. They form an integral in the human belief in the judiciary as well. There are various levels of the judiciary system – various types of courts.

At the topmost level is the supreme court of India, and the Chief Justice of the high court holds the topmost position in our country, followed by the Additional Justice/ registrar and at the lowest is the judge (Junior division)

The Supreme Court

The Supreme Court in India is the highest court with the highest authority. It is established by the Indian Constitution. It is the court of the highest appeal. It is an appellate court which takes up cases of the high courts of the states and territories.

For instances, cases filed under Article 32 which involves serious issues of human violation acts that need immediate resolution. The composition and jurisdiction of the court are laid down by the articles 124 to 147.

One important fact is that the supreme court comprises the chief justice and 30 other judges.

High Courts

These courses are bent down by the Supreme Court due to inferior compositions. There are 24 high courts that are bound by the judgments and orders of the Supreme Court of India. They have their jurisdiction over a state, a union territory, group of states and union territories.

District Courts

These courts are established by every state government of India for every individual district or in some cases one District Court for three to four districts together. The judge here is appointed by the state government.

Subordinate Courts

These are the courts at the most local level. Often these are termed as Nyaya Panchayats. These courts are prevalent in almost every nook and corner of India.


The main fact is the issues of judiciary prevailing all over India.
“Although India’s courts are notoriously inefficient, they at least comprise a functioning independent judiciary” – this was the view by the world bank.

● It is true that the courts are quite ineffective which makes the judiciary system blamable. The bribing of judges proves to go beyond the judiciary system.
● Some of the main reasons include the millions of pending cases.
● The vacant positions of judges. Filled vacancies would lead to the fulfilment of the pending cases.


The judiciary system of India is indeed considered as a very corrupt system. The availability of a free and fair system is still a dream in the Indian context. The courts are not so efficient, and this problem needs immediate attention. This is the prevailing view of the judiciary in the Indian context.


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